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Human nutrition

Rye is rich in water-soluble and insoluble dietary fibres, of which the main proportion consists of partly soluble arabinoxylan. In addition, it contains phenolic acids, lignans, alcylresorcinols and other compounds with potential bioactivities.

The dietary fibres are located in the outer layers of the kernel and in the bran. Since rye is mainly consumed as whole grain bread, it is an important source of dietary fibres for a healthy diet.

Physiological Effects of the Dietary Fibre Complex

Significance Mechanism of ActionPotential Health Effects
Teeth
  • Requires more chewing
  • Increases the secretion of salvia
  • Protection against dental caries
  • Keeps gum healthy
Stomach
  • Increases the secretion of salvia and gastric juices
  • Decreases the rate of evacuation of stomach contents into small intestine
  • prolongs the feeling of satiety
  • Enhances satiety
  • prevents overeating and weight gain
Digestive tract 
  • hortens intestinal transit time
  • Dilutes harmful substances
  • Beneficial for the bacterial population in the large intestine
  • Interrupts the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens, reducing estrogen levels
  • Prevents constipation
  • Decreases risk of breast and colon cancer
  • Alters bile acid metabolism in the gut in a favourite way
Cardiovascularsystem
  • Inhibits the absorption of dietary cholestorol
  • Increases the release of bile acids into the intestine
  • Influences the plasma triglyceride levels and blood clotting properties

  • Lowers blood cholestorol levels
  • Decreases the risk of heart disease and gall stones

Blood glucose
  • Slows down the absorption of carbohydrates
  • Stabilizes blood glucose levels, especially in diabetic individuals

(Source: http://virtual.vtt.fi/virtual/rye/)

The recommended daily consumption of dietary fibres should be 25 – 35 grams. In most European countries the consumption is below this recommendation. In the Nordic countries, 40 % of the demand for dietary fibres is met through rye products.

In addition to the dietary fibres, rye adds minerals and vitamins to the daily demand in the form of whole grain bread.
 

Main nutrients  Rye whole grain bread

ComponentsAmount per 100 g Unit
Bread unit3,23
Kilocalories198
Kilojoule828
Protein7,30g
Fat1,20g
Carbohydrates38,75g
Dietary fibres, in total8,12g
Cholesterol0,00mg
Mineral matters1,50g
Vitamins
a-Tocopherol0,80mg
Vitamin A Retinol0,00mg
Vitamin D0,00µg
Vitamin B1 0,18 mg
Vitamin B2 0,15 mg
Vitamin B6 0,15 mg
ß-Carotene4,00 µg

(Source: Deutsches Ernährungs- und Informationsnetz)

Rye can contribute to health improvement.

For more information on the health effect of rye please go to
www.ryeandhealth.org and http://virtual.vtt.fi/virtual/rye/.
 

Additional Information

Characteristics of rye varieties with respect to nutritional and prohealthy properties (Source: Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization – National Research Institute (IHAR-PIB), Radzików, Poland) (1,4 KB)

METHOD OF OBTAINING RYE PRODUCT WITH INCREASED DIETARY FIBRE CONTENT (Source: Jan MICHNIEWICZ, Piotr KOŁODZIEJCZYK, Agnieszka MAKOWSKA) (1,3 KB)

RYE – HEALTHY AND TRENDY (Source: VAASAN Group) (1,3 KB)

 
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